Midterm Examination:


Two sections. Will run from 2:30 (exactly) to 4:00


A) 6 short answer questions. Answer all of them. Write about a paragraph in response to each. Bullet points are fine, and will work best for some of the answers. Each will be pretty specific about one of the readings. All will be based on the topics raised in the discussion questions.


Example short answer questions:



a) Define horizontal and vertical integration. Give an example of what each would consist of for the owner of an automobile factory in 1910.

b) Give at least three benefits that the owner of the automobile factory might gain from choosing vertical integration rather than relying on market mechanisms.



a) The United States Postal Service was a key part of the nineteenth century information infrastructure. How were its development and policies shaped by political or ideological considerations during the first half of the century?

b) How did it adapt to changing technologies during the latter half of the nineteenth century?


B) One essay. Choose from two. More open-ended, but do make sure you are answering the question. Have an overall argument, and bring in support from as many readings as possible.


ex1) How did the organization and management of the largest American businesses change from 1860 to 1920? What underlying factors do you think were driving these changes?


Credit: 10% of the mark for each short answer question. (60 total). 40% for the essay.